Sunday, December 5, 2010

Biology...Chapter 2

Adaptations:  structural adaptaion-change the outward part of the body ex. Colors to camoflauge, grow claws, fangs, wings.  Physiological-change a body function on the inside (chemical change) ex. Change Digestive system-> to digest new things, improve eyesight, hearing.  Behavior-Change the way you act ex. Hunting in packs instead of by yourself, migrating. 
Form new relationships or change existing relationships:  predator prey, find new things to eat ex. Coyotes eat dogs cat sheeps.  Competition:  competing with other species for same resources ex. Cattle+deer=fight 4 grass. 
Symbiosis-realtionship between 2 very different species    1) Parasitism: 1 benefits 1 gets hurt ex. Aphids+roses-> weaken but do not die| 2) commensialism:  1 benefits 1 doesn’t care ex. Marmot+raccoon-> home-> raccoon takes over | 3) mutualism:  both benefit ex. Ants+aphids -> aphid provide food-> ants provide protecting from predators. 
1) Niche:  special role organism plays in an organism. 2) photosynthesis: carbon dioxide enters + leaves, reacts with water in sunlight->produce carbohydrates+oxygen.  3)  Cellular Resperation:  plants+animals release carbon dioxide back-> convert carbohydrates + oxygen INTO carbon dioxide+water. 
Video question about biome!
1. 3 parts that identify type of biome=temperature, moisture, soil
2. why is soil so important for ecosystems=valuable store of minerals, foundation which plants need
3. TUNDRA=no trees-> perma frost, short growing season, adaptation-> dwarf size, birds nest on ground, thick coats, huddle for warmth, migrate, camoflauge.
4. TAIGA=plants adapt-> flexible branches, brush off snow, summer wax pines coserve water, soil-> poor acidic
5. DECIDUOUS FOREST/GRASSLANDS=difference grassland+forest-> forest, more rain broad leaves.  Adaptation->shed leaves in winter, big leaves attract sunlight, soil-> forest-poor, grass-abundant
6. TROPICAL GRASSLANDS/ RAINFOREST:  deference between r/f & grass, r/f-> moisture, grass-> small shrubs, scattered trees, soil-> gr/l=very fertile, r/f=soil infertile
7. 1 ½ of lif eon earth found in rainforest -> 1/20 of all the land on earth.
8. most simple biome is TUNDRA because of soil & climate, most complex=TROPICAL RAINFOREST, why?  Water and temperature complex life. 
9. MAJOR THREATS:  tundra-gas development, rainforest-clear cutting, desert-mining, recreational use, grasslands-overgrazing, farming
Biome graph sheet
1. left to right:  desert (30-15), tundra (5-(-10), boreal forest, grasslands, deciduous forest, tropical grasslands, topical rainforest
2. elevation stayed, rian increased=desert->grassland soil stays same, topical->jungle worst, grassland-> deciduous stays same.
3. elevation same, rain decreases=grass-> desert worst soil, tropical-> jungle=same, deciduous-> grass same
1. elevation & latitude change the biome. 
2. factors influence characteristics and distribution of life in terrestrial biome=temperature and precipitation
abiotic affects biotic factors
-heavy percepitation eaffect biotic cycle because mineral would wash away and thus creating shorter trees.
-air that is thinner affects trees because it is more scarce to represent an biotic factors
-lightning helps plants by fixing the nitrogen.
Biotic affects abiotic
-more trees are cut down the more carbon dioxide is released into the air
-when an animal dies their body decomjposes into the soil putting nutrients back into the ground

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